Jardiance Side Effects and Drug Interactions

Wednesday 1 May 2024
8 minute(s) read

Table of Contents

I. Jardiance Side Effects

i. Diabetic Ketoacidosis

ii. Fournier’s Gangrene

iii. Dehydration

iv. Yeast Infections

v. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

II. Jardiance Drug Interactions

III. Jardiance During Pregnancy

IV. Conclusion

When taking any prescription medication, it's important to keep an eye out for potential side effects and drug interactions. Jardiance is no exception. While it can be an effective treatment for type 2 diabetes, this drug may cause some unwelcome effects in some people.

In this article, we’ll discuss common Jardiance side effects, drug interactions, and usage during pregnancy.

Jardiance Side Effects

Jardiance may cause side effects in some people. It’s important to stay vigilant about your symptoms and report any concerns to your doctor immediately.

Common Jardiance side effects include:

  • Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA)
  • Fournier’s Gangrene
  • Dehydration
  • Yeast infection
  • Urinary tract infection (UTI) [1]

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a life-threatening complication of diabetes. It's crucial to understand and monitor for DKA, especially if you're taking Jardiance. [2]

DKA occurs when the body lacks sufficient insulin to allow glucose into the cells for energy, causing the liver to break down glucagon instead. This process leads to the production of ketones, which are acidic compounds. When ketones accumulate at a rapid pace, they can reach dangerous levels in the body. [2]

Jardiance can increase the risk of developing DKA. Jardiance stimulates the production of glucagon, a hormone that raises ketone levels. Because of this risk, it's critical to monitor your ketone levels regularly while taking Jardiance, even if your blood sugar is normal. [3]

DKA usually develops slowly. Early signs include:

  • Extreme thirst
  • Frequent urination
  • Fatigue [2]

If left untreated, DKA can quickly become severe, causing symptoms like:

  • Rapid, deep breathing
  • Dry mouth
  • Flushed face
  • Fruity breath
  • Nausea
  • Stomach pain
  • Muscle aches [2]

If you experience any symptoms of DKA, stop taking Jardiance immediately and seek medical care right away. DKA is normally treated in the hospital. Treatment typically includes:

  • Intravenous fluids to rehydrate you and dilute excess sugar.
  • Electrolyte replacement to restore minerals.
  • Insulin to reverse the conditions that led to high ketone levels. [2]

Fournier’s Gangrene

In extremely rare cases, taking Jardiance can lead to a potentially life-threatening bacterial infection called Fournier's gangrene. This condition affects the tissue around the genital and anal regions. If left untreated, it can rapidly advance and become fatal. That's why recognizing the initial symptoms and seeking emergency care right away is so important. [4]

Fournier's gangrene often starts when bacteria enter the body through a cut or wound in the genital or rectal area. These bacteria multiply quickly and destroy the surrounding soft tissues. Within a few days, severe symptoms can develop. [5]

Jardiance seems to raise the risk of Fournier's gangrene because it increases the amount of sugar in the urine. This creates an ideal environment for bacterial overgrowth around the genitals. [4]

If you take Jardiance, be alert to the early signs of Fournier's gangrene. Seek medical help immediately if you notice any of the following:

  • Fever
  • Fatigue
  • Feeling weak
  • Pain or tenderness around the genital or anal areas
  • Swelling of the genitals
  • Reddened skin near the genitals [5]

To treat Fournier's gangrene, getting appropriate care quickly is crucial. This condition can rapidly become life-threatening if left untreated. However, with timely intervention, the outlook can be significantly improved. [5]

Treatment may involve:

  • Surgical debridement: When a CT scan shows gas accumulation in the infected area, emergency surgery is needed. This removes all dead tissue to stop the infection spreading and promote healing.
  • Antibiotics: A combination of intravenous and oral antibiotics will be prescribed to effectively combat the bacteria causing the condition and prevent further complications. This two-pronged approach helps eliminate the infection and protect against additional problems. [5]


dehydrated man drinking water

Because Jardiance works by causing your body to eliminate extra sugar through your urine, it can make you need to urinate more often than usual. This increased frequency of urination could potentially lead to dehydration if you're not careful. [4]

Dehydration occurs when your body loses more fluid than it takes in, resulting in an insufficient amount of water and electrolytes (like salt) in your system. [4]

Certain factors may put you at greater risk of becoming dehydrated while taking Jardiance:

  • Taking blood pressure medications in addition to Jardiance
  • Following a low-sodium diet
  • Having kidney problems
  • Being 65 years of age or older [4]

Watch out for potential signs of dehydration like dizziness, fainting, light-headedness, and weakness. If you experience any of these symptoms, contact your healthcare provider right away. [4]

To help avoid dehydration with Jardiance:

  • Consult with your doctor about how much fluid you should aim to drink daily and any other steps you can take to stay hydrated.
  • Limit caffeine intake from coffee, tea, soda, and other sources. Caffeine acts as a diuretic, meaning it makes you urinate more frequently. Combining caffeine with Jardiance can increase your trips to the bathroom and your dehydration risk.
  • Cut back on alcohol, which can have a similar diuretic effect as caffeine. [4]

Yeast Infections

Yeast is a normal part of our bodies - it lives on our skin, in the digestive system, and in the vaginal area for women. [6] Usually, our body keeps yeast under control. However, Jardiance causes extra sugar to be excreted in the urine, creating an environment where yeast can overgrow. This leads to a yeast infection, also called candidiasis. [4]

Symptoms of yeast infections in women include:

  • White or yellow vaginal discharge
  • Itching
  • Redness
  • Burning [6]

Symptoms of yeast infections in men include:

  • Redness or scaling on the underside of the penis
  • Painful rash on the underside of the penis [6]

While uncomfortable, yeast infections are treatable, especially when caught early.

  • Minor yeast infections: antifungal creams or medicated suppositories can provide relief.
  • Severe yeast infections: oral antifungal medications can provide relief. [6]

Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are unfortunately very common, especially for those taking Jardiance. UTIs happen when bacteria, often from the skin or rectum, enter the urethra and infect the urinary tract. [7]

Jardiance causes more frequent urination and sugary urine, creating an environment where bacteria can thrive in the genital area and cause infection. Once you have a UTI, you become prone to getting another one. [4]

UTIs can affect different parts of the urinary tract. The most common infection area is the bladder. A less common but more serious infection area is the kidney.

  • Bladder infection symptoms: burning or pain during urination, needing to urinate frequently, feeling unable to urinate when you need to, bloody urine, pressure or cramping in the groin or lower abdomen.
  • Kidney infection symptoms: fever, chills, pain in the lower back or side, nausea, vomiting. [7]

Given that UTIs are caused by bacteria, your doctor will prescribe antibiotics to treat the infection. It is crucial to take these antibiotics exactly as prescribed by your doctor to eliminate the infection and prevent it from recurring. [7]

Jardiance Drug Interactions

When adding Jardiance to your treatment plan, it's vital to keep your doctor fully informed about all other medications you're taking. This includes prescription drugs, over-the-counter products, vitamins, herbs, and supplements. Doing so helps prevent potentially harmful interactions between Jardiance and your other medications.

A few key drug interactions to be aware of with Jardiance are:

  • Diuretics: When combined with Jardiance, diuretics can increase the volume and frequency of your urine. While this is a normal effect of both medications, it's important to stay mindful of your hydration levels to prevent dehydration. Your doctor will assess your blood volume and renal function before starting you on Jardiance, and they will closely monitor any signs of decreased blood volume and renal function once you begin the medication.
  • Insulin: This combination has been associated with a higher risk of hypoglycemia or low blood sugar. Your doctor may need to adjust your insulin dosage to reduce this risk. It is essential to follow your doctor's guidance and make any recommended changes to your insulin regimen to ensure your safety.
  • Lithium: Jardiance can affect how quickly your kidneys remove lithium from your body. This may lead to lower lithium levels in your bloodstream, potentially falling below the therapeutic range. To address this, your doctor will likely monitor your lithium blood levels more frequently after starting Jardiance or adjusting your dosage. [1]

Jardiance During Pregnancy

pregnant woman checking blood sugar

While taking Jardiance during the first trimester of pregnancy has not been shown to cause harm, using it during the second and third trimesters is not recommended. Animal studies found that when pregnant animals were given Jardiance later in pregnancy, their fetuses showed signs of kidney damage. [1]

That said, poorly controlled diabetes during pregnancy also poses risks to both the mother and baby.

  • Major birth defects in women with pre-gestational diabetes with an HbA1c greater than 10 is 20 to 25%.
  • Major birth defects in women with an HbA1c greater than 7 is 6 to 10%. [1]

Balancing these risks is complex. The choice of whether to use Jardiance depends on each woman's unique situation and health needs. If you have diabetes and are pregnant or hoping to become pregnant, talk to your doctor about continuing Jardiance. [1]


Jardiance offers a unique way to help control blood sugar in people with type 2 diabetes. Having additional treatment options gives patients and doctors more flexibility in finding an approach that works well for different situations. 

However, it’s important to be aware of the potential side effects and drug interactions that can occur with any medication, including Jardiance. By understanding how Jardiance works and communicating with your doctor, you can use this medication safely and effectively as part of your diabetes management plan.

DISCLAIMER: The content in this article is intended for informational purposes only. This website does not provide medical advice. In all circumstances, you should always seek the advice of your physician and/or other qualified health professionals(s) for drug, medical condition, or treatment advice. The content provided on this website is not a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment.